INSTITUTE OF COMMUNICATION AND COMPUTER SYSTEMS (ICCS/NTUA)
The Institute of Communications and Computer Systems of the National Technical University of Athens (ICCS/NTUA) was founded in 1989, as the research arm of the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering of the NTUA (SECE-NTUA), with which it is associated, in the field of telecommunications systems and computer systems. The primary mandate of ICCS/NTUA has been to provide the facilities and organizational environment through which research could be performed and through which post-graduate students could receive research stipends and researchers could be employed. At present ICCS/NTUA employs more than 500 researchers including SECE faculty staff, senior research scientists, and PhD students.
Role in the project
ICCS/NTUA has a strong track record of coordinating and leading EC-funded projects to success, and aims to continue this tradition as the coordinator of QAMeleon and leader of WP1 (“Project Management”). ICCS/NTUA is also responsible for (i) development of DSP algorithms for the transmitter and receiver side, in WP2; (ii) design and implementation of test platforms for the narrow linewidth lasers developed by FNSR-SE, in WP3; (iii) design of the PBSC on the platform of SMART and generation of EOPCB blueprints for the WSS prototypes in WP6; (iv) system integration of ROADM components into white boxes in WP7 and (v) evaluation of the ROADM subsystem in WP7. ICCS/NTUA also leads dissemination and communication activities in WP9, offloading workload from the WP leader (NBLF). ICCS/NTUA researchers are perfectly suited for accomplishing these goals, leveraging the group’s extensive experience in the development of novel optical subsystems and the design of integrated photonic components and exploiting its world-class communication testing laboratory infrastructure.
FINISAR GERMANY GMBH (FNSR-DE)
Finisar Corporation is a global technology leader in optical communications components and subsystems. Their products enable high-speed voice, video and data communications for networking, storage, wireless, and cable TV applications. For 25 years, Finisar has provided critical breakthroughs in optics technologies and has supplied system manufacturers with the production volumes needed to meet the exploding demand for network bandwidth. Finisar's industry-leading optical products include transceivers/transponders, active cables, wavelength selective switches (WSS), ROADM linecards, optical instruments, RF-over-Fiber, amplifiers, and active and passive components. With approximately 13000 employees, Finisar has sales channels and support offices worldwide. Corporate headquarters are located in Sunnyvale, California (USA), with product development and manufacturing facilities located in California, Pennsylvania and Texas (USA), Australia, China, Germany, Israel, Malaysia, Singapore and Sweden
Role in the project
The role of Finisar-DE in the project is to package the different PICs and electronics ICs and provide the components (“gold boxes”) to be used for the QAMeleon system demonstrations. According to QAMeleon’s workplan two packaging runs are envisaged for the three different components, i.e. the tunable laser, the InP modulator together with modulator driver and the coherent receiver, consisting of the InP coherent PIC, the muti-channel transimpedance amplifier (TIA) as well as the free-space optics for polarization management. Furthermore, Finisar-DE as leader of WP7, will be responsible for the assembly trials and the validation of the process flow for the assembly of the QAMeleon transceiver and WSS components.
FRAUNHOFER GESELLSCHAFT ZUR FOERDERUNG DER ANGEWANDTEN FORSCHUNG E.V. (HHI)
The Fraunhofer Institute for Telecommunications, Heinrich- Hertz-Institut (HHI), located in Berlin, Germany, has been a member institute of the Fraunhofer Association (Fraunhofer Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Angewandten Forschung e.V.) –its legal representative- since 2003. HHI is organized in 7 departments that carryout R&D activities in the areas of photonic networks, mobile broadband communications, image processing, high-speed hardware architectures, interactive media/human factors, fiber optical sensor systems, and photonic components. It employs more than 250 people and has a Quality Management System in the field of Photonics since 2000 (certified DIN EN ISO 9001).
Role in the project
Within QAMeleon, HHI will be the leader of WP3 for the Development of InP photonic transceiver components. Therefore, HHI will be responsible for the design and fabrication of the high-bandwidth (75GHz) IQ modulator arrays at a low Vπ =1.5 V as well as the development of 100GHz coherent receiver. HHI will also design and fabricate the polarization handling components (a polarization rotator and polarization splitter compatible with its InP modulator platform) with high polarization extinction ratio and low insertion losses. HHI will collaborate closely with III-V Lab, IMEC and DTU adopting a co-design between the modulator and the electronic driver ICs and also with FNSR-DE that will assembly the QAMeleon’s transceiver modules. HHI will also provide specifications regarding the IQ modulator and the coherent receiver in WP2.
INTERUNIVERSITAIR MICRO-ELECTRONICA CENTRUM (IMEC)
Imec performs world-leading research in nanoelectronics and leverages its scientific knowledge with the innovative power of its global partnerships in ICT, healthcare and energy. Imec is an independent research centre, founded by the Belgian Flemish Government in 1984. The Department of Information Technology (INTEC) of Ghent University (UGent) act as an associated division of IMEC since 1984. As from October 1, 2016, imec merged with iMinds, resulting in one of the largest digital ICT research institutes in Europe. The imec-IDLab Design research group in this proposal is very active in optoelectronic front-end and (sub-) system design since the early nineties. The IDLab-Design group is currently one of the leading groups in the research and development of high-speed, low-power transmitter and receiver integrated circuits for next generation transport, metro, access, datacenter and radio-over-fiber networks. Developments are ongoing in the frame of various FP7 EU-projects (Phoxtrot and Spirit), and are continuing in the frame of H2020 (Flex5Gware, Teraboard, Streams, WIPE, Optima and 5GPHOS). In Nov. 2014, the Design group was awarded the 3rd biannual Greentouch 1000x award together with Bell Labs/Alcatel-Lucent and Orange Labs
Role in the project
In QAMeleon, the imec-IDLab Design group will be responsible for the design, prototyping and testing of the SiGe DAC, interleaver and pre-driver electronics and the associated intermediate test boards or substrates. These design builds further on IMEC’s recent and ongoing developments of high-speed (segmented) MZM drivers, EAM drivers, ring modulator drivers and VCSEL drivers in the frame of various FP7 and H2020 projects. IMEC will be responsible for Task 4.1 Development of high-bandwidth transmitter SiGe ICs and will also provide specification for the SiGe ICs in WP2.
Finisar Sweden AB (FNSR-SE)
Finisar Corporation (NASDAQ listed, ticker: FNSR) is a global technology leader in optical communications components and subsystems. Finisar products enable high-speed voice, video and data communications for networking, storage, wireless, and cable TV applications. For 25 years, Finisar has provided critical breakthroughs in optics technologies and has supplied system manufacturers with the production volumes needed to meet the exploding demand for network bandwidth. Finisar's industry-leading optical products include transceivers/transponders, active cables, wavelength selective switches (WSS), ROADM linecards, optical instruments, RF-over-Fiber, amplifiers, and active and passive components. With approximately 13000 employees, Finisar has sales channels and support offices worldwide. Finisar Corp vertically integrated with development and manufacturing for all integration levels of its products; from component level (lasers, modulators, detectors, receivers and IC’s) to OSA (Optical Sub Assembly = packaged devices) to Module (sub-system/transceiver).
Role in the project
Within QAMeleon, Finisar Sweden will be the provider of the monolithic InP based tunable narrow linewidth lasers (< 100KHz) which are crucial for achieving adequate phase recovery performance in coherent transmission systems, especially when dense QAM constellations are used (i.e. beyond 16-QAM) to maximize spectral efficiency. Finisar Sweden will be responsible for the design and manufacturing of the narrow linewidth devices as well as delivering such devices in the needed volumes. Finisar will provide the necessary laser specifications at WP2 and will lead Task 3.4 for the Development of narrow linewidth tunable lasers.
SMART PHOTONICS BV (SMART)
SMART Photonics B.V. is a pure-play foundry for InP photonics semiconductors. The company started in started in March 2012 and is located in Eindhoven. It offers its customers an expert team with a long history and a proven track record in InP manufacturing and R&D. The team consists of former employees of both Philips Photonic Labs and TU Eindhoven with a broad experience in epitaxy (growth and regrowth), processing, test & measurement and quality. In 2015 SMART Photonics opened its own production facility and it is capable of volume manufacturing of InP based photonics. The uniqueness lies in the fact that it combines pure-play foundry approach, a dedicated photonics cleanroom for InP semiconductors, an experienced team, and a generic process in which customers can design based on functional building blocks, rather than technological steps. The latter method is common in electronics, but new for the photonics industry. Examples of products developed for customers include: FBG readout circuits, EMLs, (high power) DFB lasers, integrated transmitters and receivers.
Role in the project
SMART Photonics is the InP foundry that will develop the polarization insensitive AWG and fabricate energy efficient switches for the fast WSS in its MPW process within WP5. The AWG will be developed as an extension to its currently available open access integration platform. For this reason, SMART will lead Task 5.1. The AWG is described as a building block in SMART’s Process Design Kit (PDK) to allow other designers to use these in their designs. SMART will also be responsible for the InP WFEs and PBSC integration that will take place within WP6 and will be designed by AUTH and ICCS/NTUA, respectively.
TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITEIT EINDHOVEN (TU/e)
The Technische Universiteit Eindhoven (TU/e) in the Netherlands offers (pre)graduate engineering programmes (BSc and MSc) and post-graduate technological design (MTD), PhD and teacher training programmes (MSc) and post-academic continuing education. The courses are research-driven and design-oriented. TU/e co-ordinates several prominent Dutch research schools and institutes, such as Institute for Photonic Integration (IPI) and has a strong position within international research networks. The TU/e is a natural partner for technology intensive enterprises. The campus is a fertile breeding ground for new business ventures. The TU/e hosts the Dutch national centre on III-V-semiconductors and opto-electronics. Eindhoven University has built an 800 m2 clean room for research on Advanced Materials and Photonic Integration Technology. With these facilities, IPI belongs to the world’s best equipped academic research centres in the field of Photonics. Furthermore, the ECO group has access to an extensive infrastructure for characterization of devices/PICs and systems such as a 56 Gigabit/s BER tester, 40 Gigahertz pulse-source for 640 Gigabit/s transmission research, and fast digital sampling and real-time oscilloscopes. Recent European project with TU/e ECO involvement include: LASAGNE, MUFINS, HISTORIC, ALPHA, POF-PLUS, BOOM, MODEGAP, EUROFOS, QUANTIP, QD2D, DEMANES, BROWSE, IDEALIST, LIGHTNESS, COSIGN, METRO-HAUL.
Role in the project
Within the framework of QAMeleon, TU/e will design, fabricate and validate novel energy-efficient InP-based switches and the InP-based photonic WBL based on an innovative modular and single stage switch architecture. TU/e will lead WP5 and will also assess the fabricated device performance by evaluating critical parameters such as SOA gain, multiplexer characterization, optical cross-talk, switching speed, channel isolation, and polarization dependent loss will be assessed. TU/e will also exploit the mature PDK and design manual of SMART to design and fabricate the photonic circuits based on the C-band MPW platform and will closely collaborate with AUTH for efficiently designing the optical interfaces of the InP chips. TU/e will also provide feedback to AUTH within WP6 for the optical interfaces of InP pics and to Optocap within WP7 regarding the assembly of the WSS within .
VARIO-OPTICS AG (VARIO)
vario-optics ag, is a start-up company (SME) focusing on the fabrication of electro-optical printed circuit boards (EOPCB) based on integrated planar optical waveguides. It owns all the required fabrication technologies and application specific infrastructure for the manufacturing of planar optical waveguides. vario-optics has a world-wide customer basis. The applications range from industrial and medical sensors, optical communication applications to electro-optical substrates for photonic packages.
Role in the project
Within QAMeleon vario-optics will be responsible for the design, fabrication and evaluation of 1550 nm polymer EOPCB technology that will host the InP chips for the WSS demonstrators. VARIO will lead WP6 and will develop 4 generations of EOPCB and will design and fabricate “thermal vias” solution for heat dissipation on the EOPCB. VARIO will closely collaborate with AUTH providing the necessary information required for the design of InP-polymer optical coupling interfaces as well as the necessary feedback to OPTO within WP7 during the assembly process of the WSS demonstrator. VARIO’s deliverables will contain waveguide-only samples for optical coupling tests, electro-optical substrates for first functional prototypes and the final electro-optical circuit board for the demonstrator system.
Technical University of Denmark (DTU)
The Technical University of Denmark is represented in this project by the Electromagnetic Systems group (EMS) part of the DTU Electrical Engineering department. The activities at the EMS group cover electromagnetic theory, antenna and microwave technology, antenna measurements, electromagnetic metamaterials, and Terahertz electronics. The EMS group currently numbers 7 senior faculty members, 2 junior research assistants, 1 engineering technician and 10 PhD students. The EMS group also operates the DTU-ESA spherical near-field antenna test facility which serves as a reference laboratory for the European Space Agency.
Role in the project
DTU’s will contribute to QAMeleon through WP3 “Development of InP photonic transceiver components”, participating to the activities in Task 3.1 by proving guidelines to HHI about the electrical interface between MZ-PIC and driver-IC using impedance matched Polyimide-based flex interface or alternative co-design approaches. The guidelines will mainly be based upon detailed electromagnetic simulation studies using HFSS and thermal management simulation using Ansys Mechanical or COMSOL Multiphysics. Similarly, DTU will contribute to WP7 “Demonstrator Assembly and System Integration” through a supporting role for Task 7.3 associated with assembly and packaging of the Terabit transceiver. DTU will also participate to WP4 “Development of InP-HBT and SiGe BiCMOS Electronics”. The main effort will be devoted to the development of the InP HBT integration process in Task 4.2. DTU leads the subtask 4.2.2 on the development of compact electro-thermal transistor models for the downscaled InP HBTs to be developed within Task 4.2. Finally, DTU will also contribute to the administrative activities in WP1.
III-V Lab is an industrial Research Laboratory created in 2004 by Alcatel-Lucent and Thales. In 2010, it was extended with the entrance of the “Laboratoire d’Electronique et de Technologie de l’Information” (LETI) from CEA, which is one of the largest public research organizations in France. III-V Lab conducts R&D activities in the field of micro/nano-electronics and photonics semiconductor components for different applications: telecoms, defence, security, safety, space, etc. Located on 2 sites (Marcoussis and Palaiseau, near Paris), its facilities include 4000 m2 of clean rooms, with capabilities in advanced material synthesis (MOCVD, MBE), advanced device processing (RIE, ICP, CAIBE, IBE), measuring, modelling and designing equipment. Its staff is composed of around 100 permanent researchers, plus about 25 PhD students. III-V Lab has also the capacity to produce limited quantities of epitaxial wafers, components, modules or subsystems). Such capacity is particularly adapted to address in a flexible way the rapid evolution of the market, offering to its members or partner industrial companies an early access to the components for their system development and even preliminary deployment; in a second step, depending on the market evolution, if larger quantities are required, the technology is transferred to an industrial company with larger production capacities.
Role in the project
III-V Lab will lead WP4 of QAMeleon and will be responsible for the further development of the InP-DHBT integration platform (Task 4.2) as well as the design, fabrication and characterization of the InP-DHBT electronic circuits for the transmitter (broadband linear A-MUX and driver, Task 4.3) and the receiver (broadband linear TIA and A-DMUX circuits, Task 4.4). III-V Lab will also collaborate within Task 4.1 lead by IMEC for the optimum interfacing between SiGe chips and InP chips. III-V Lab will also participate in WP1, 2, 3, 7, 8 and 9 to the definition of specifications, interfaces, packaging implementations, system integrations and dissemination activities. The specific group of III-V Lab that will be involved in QAMeleon has more than 20 years of experience in the development of InP-HBT technology and the development of the relevant very high speed integrated circuits. More specifically, over the past 5 years, the group has developed a very large range of state-of-the-art electronic circuits (MUX, drivers, DEMUX circuits, TIA/TIA-AGCs, Power-DACs) that have been the key-enabling components for pioneering demonstrations of IM-DD and/or coherent optical transmissions from 100 Gb/s to 1 Tb/s, including the word first demonstrations of a single-carrier 400-Gb/s in 50 GHz using PDM 64 QAM at 43 GBd over 600km in 2013, and of a single-carrier 1-Tb/s with PDM 64QAM at 90GBd in 2015.
NOKIA BELL LABS FRANCE (NBLF)
Nokia is a global leader in the technologies that connect people and things. Powered by the innovation of Nokia Bell Labs and Nokia Technologies, the company is at the forefront of creating and licensing the technologies that are increasingly at the heart of our connected lives. With state-of-the-art software, hardware and services for any type of network, Nokia is uniquely positioned to help communication service providers, governments, and large enterprises deliver on the promise of 5G, the Cloud and the Internet of Things. Nokia Bell Labs, Nokia’s research and innovation arm, creates the disruptive technologies that are shaping the way the world communicates and connects. With expertise in analytics, cloud, fixed, optics and wireless and by collaborating openly with the global innovation community, Nokia Bell Labs is seeking the technology solutions that will transform the connected world. For 90 years, scientific breakthroughs at Nokia Bell Labs have fundamentally transformed the ICT industry, and won 8 Nobel Prizes.
Role in the project
The Bell Labs team participating to different Work Packages and tasks (WP1,2,7,8,9) in QAMeleon, of which he is leader in the WP2 and WP9. NBLF will contribute to the project with industry-driven solutions while being at the forefront of the innovation and directly contributes to the definition of the next generation of optical products. NBLF will contribute to subsystem specifications and assessments, as well as to system level demonstration thanks to our optical networking experimental know-how, in dense wavelength division multiplexing transmission, nonlinearities, digital signal processing and high-speed optical experiments. In the QAMeleon project, NBLF will contribute to build abstraction of optical data plane thanks to its SDN/NFV capabilities. NBLF will also lead WP9 for the QAMeleon roadmapping, exploitation and dissemination activities.
VPI PHOTONICS GMBH (VPI)
VPIphotonics provides professional simulation software supporting requirements of integrated photonics and fibre optics applications, and optical transmission system and network applications. Further, it supplies professional consulting services addressing customer-specific design, analysis and optimization requirements, and delivers training courses on suitable modelling techniques and advanced software capabilities. VPIphotonics' award-winning off-the-shelf and customized solutions are used extensively in research and development, and by product design and marketing teams at hundreds of corporations worldwide. Over 160 academic institutions have joined the company’s University Program enabling students, educators and researchers access to VPIphotonics' latest modelling and design innovations.
Role in the project
In addition to the administrative activities in WP1, VPIphotonics’ core technical contribution to the project will be in WP2 “Component and System Specifications and Requirements”, where it will participate in formulating the project’s use-cases, network requirements and performance indicators (Task 2.1), defining the system and component specifications (Task 2.2), as well as take an active role in the development of the TRx DSP algorithms that are central to the QAMeleon’s technological objectives (Task 2.5). VPIphotonics leads Task 2.6 where system and component modeling and simulation takes place. The work that will be carried out in this task will span almost the entire project duration, and will constitute the first verification of the project’s proposed system concepts. It will interact heavily with the WPs where the components’ fabrication takes place, in order to aid the design and development cycle, and ensure that performance targets are met. VPIphotonics will also actively support the experimental verification effort in WP8, contributing with researchers, as well as its commercial lab automation software (VPIlabExpert), in the laboratory and field trial validations of the developed technology. As an industrial partner, VPIphotonics will seek to commercially exploit the outcomes of QAMeleon in WP9.
ARISTOTELIO PANEPISTIMIO THESSALONIKIS (AUTH)
Aristotelio Panepistimio Thessalonikis (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki - AUTH) is the largest university in Greece, established in 1925. Today the main campus extends over an area of 429 metric acres in the heart of the city and comprises 12 Faculties organized in a total number of 42 Schools that cover the full range of scientific disciplines. More than 70.000 undergraduate and 8.000 postgraduate students are working towards their degrees at the Aristotle University, while more than 2.200 Faculty members are employed as Teaching and Research personnel.
Role in the project
AUTH will be responsible for the design of optical interfaces between InP PICs and polymer waveguides of the EOPCB platform developed by VARIO within WP6 as well as for the design of the InP WFEs and the microoptics setup for the hybrid InP-LCOS switching platforms. AUTH will also contribute to the laboratory validation of QAMeleon’s components and systems and will lead the experimental evaluation of the physical layer evaluation of the 1×24 WSS relying on the combination of InP PICs and LCoS in WP8, while it will also contribute to the field-trial demonstrator in TIM’s fiber plant in Task 8.4.
Nextworks s.r.l., located in Pisa, Italy, is a dynamic R&D SME that was created in 2002 as a spin-off company of the Computer Science and Telecommunications Division of the Consorzio Pisa Ricerche (CPR–DITEL). Nextworks was created by a group of engineers and computer scientists who gained high experience in National and International research projects and industrial consultancies since 1995. Nextworks operates in the TLC sectors, collaborating with some of the major European manufacturers and operators. The company’s team boasts long-term experience and proved skills in the frameworks of Control Plane technologies for wired and wireless transport networks, design and development of complex software on both traditional and embedded platforms and in Quality of Service (QoS) in packet networks, IP telephony, digital video encoding and streaming. The consulting activities carried out by Nextworks range from pure support consulting on one end, up to long-term, third-party software design & developments for equipment vendors and operators on the other end (e.g. Alcatel-Lucent, Ericsson, Italtel, Interoute). The specific nature and technical position of these activities require a leading-edge, up-to-date know-how and technical expertise. In order to fulfil this requirement, Nextworks participates actively in EU-funded research projects, cooperating with both academic and industrial partners, as an important and preferential investment to develop and update know-how on selected topics.
Role in the project
Nextworks will be strongly involved in the design and implementation of an SDN-based solution enabling the open programmability and control of the network technologies that will be developed in the project. In particular, Nextworks will lead in WP2 the task for the definition of the interfaces between control and data plane, exploiting its experience in SDN controllers and OpenFlow protocol extensions for optical devices. In WP7 and WP8, Nextworks will develop OpenFlow agents mediating between hardware and SDN controller and it will implement the required extensions in the south-bound interface of a reference SDN controller (e.g. OpenDaylight) to demonstrate the hardware programmability through a sample application for network virtualization based on the spectral slicing concept. Finally, Nextworks will support dissemination and standardization activities, through publications in international conferences and presentation of the project solution in relevant IETF WGs or IRTF RGs, around SDN and NFV topics.
TELECOM ITALIA SPA (TIM)
TIM (the single brand of the Group from the beginning of 2016 which combines Telecom Italia's solidity and TIM's innovation) operates in all the sectors of the advanced communications chain, with highly developed business in fixed-mobile communications and the Internet; in the office & system solutions (Olivetti); in research and development (TIMLab). It is present mainly in Europe, the Mediterranean Basin (TI Sparkle) and South America. At March 31, 2016, TIM has 11,6M retail physical accesses in Italy and a broadband portfolio equal to 9M accesses (7,1M retail and 1,9M wholesale). In the Italian mobile market, TIM is one of the main player with 29,8M lines. Abroad, TIM Brasil is the second largest operator by number of mobile lines (67.3M).
Role in the project
Within QAMeleon TIM will provide the fiber plant testbed for the field trial demonstration and validation of the QAMeleon Terabit Transceiver and Flex-WSS within WP8. TIM will also contribute to WP9 for the QAMeleon roadmapping, exploitation and dissemination activities.
ALTER TECHNOLOGIES (ALTER)
Optocap is a ‘Large Company’. Optocap Limited is owned by the Alter Technology Group TUV Nord S.A.U. The main business units within the Alter Technology Group are: Alter Technology, HIREX Engineering & Optocap. Alter Technology & HIREX offer component procurement, component up screening, as well as test services for both microelectronic and optoelectronic components. As service providers their focus is on components for Space & high reliability terrestrial systems. Optocap is a technology oriented company active in the field of optoelectronics, microelectronics and MEMS packaging design and assembly services. Turn-key packaging services enable its customers to reduce development and manufacturing costs, accelerate time to market and reduce risk with new product developments. Optocap also offer full design and assembly of custom products and is experience in harsh environment applications, including the Space sector, for which quality and reliability is a must along with an efficient supply chain. Optocap has 32 staff all based in the UK and all assembly and design work is carried out at the Livingston facility in the UK.
Role in the project
Within QAMeleon, Optocap is mainly involved in WP7 where the company will undertake optical assembly, design and fabrication activities for the ROADM packaged components. (i) Design: Optocap will provide design input and assembly of the photonic devices. This will involve design input for substrate and components including thermal, mechanical and optical design activities in WP6 as well as the development of precision assembly processes including die attach and optical alignment in WP7. (ii) Verification Planning: Optocap will work together with ICCS/NTUA, AUTH, TU/e, SMART and VARIO to determine the operating conditions of the package and optical electrical performance, in WP7. Thermo-mechanical finite element modelling will be used at the front end of the package design to assess the mechanical design positional stability and the component temperature gradients over package temperature exposures and device thermal loading. From this modelling and subsequent optical modelling Optocap will select the optimal materials for the package. (iii) Assembly Implementation: Optocap then will assemble the packages in WP7 with appropriate RF interconnections and optical coupling, with reference to our commercial optical transceiver production experience. Optocap will apply design for manufacturing techniques to ensure that the package design is compatible with standard assembly techniques such as die attach, wire bonding/ Flip chip and sealing. This will provide processes with a commercial manufacturing footing.